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Sophia, Colección de Filosofía de la Educación

On-line version ISSN 1390-8626Print version ISSN 1390-3861


RODRIGUEZ-ORTIZ, Angélica María; HERNANDEZ-RODRIGUEZ, Juan Camilo; LOPEZ-RUA, Ana Milena  and  CADAVID-ALZATE, Valentina. Models of critical thinking: analysis, classification and philosophical foundations. Sophia [online]. 2023, n.35, pp.211-248. ISSN 1390-8626.

Today, there are many conceptualizations on critical thinking, and most of them focus on cognitive skills, problem solving, decision-making and action, while others integrate all these aspects. In view of these multiple conceptualizations, a need to classify models arises to better understand their approaches and, in particular, the scope of the constituent elements that compose the supporting philosophical currents. This, so teachers know what each of these models contributes to their classroom practices. Objective: To identify the constituent elements of the conceptual foundations of critical thinking for classification into models according to their purposes. Methodology: A conceptual analysis, based on analytical philosophy, was used to review the main theoretical concepts of 44 theorists. Analysis matrices were designed with 12 constituents that aided in evidencing the elements of each model and determining which philosophical currents supported them. Results: Four models were identified: the logical-rational model, the cognitive-emotive model, the cognitive-scientist model, and the sociopragmatic model. These models show the influence of great philosophers’ contributions that, based on their epistemic content, have linked criticality as a main element in the construction of knowledge. Conclusions: These models will help teachers train critical thinkers to question and transform their social environment In the classroom.

Keywords : Critical thinking; rationality; cognition; pragmatism; science; philosophy.

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