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Revista Politécnica

versão On-line ISSN 2477-8990versão impressa ISSN 1390-0129


LARA, M.-Lenin  e  BUSTAMANTE, Rosa. Characterization and Pathology of Earthen Building Walls in the Ecuadorian Andean Area. Rev Politéc. (Quito) [online]. 2022, vol.49, n.2, pp.37-46. ISSN 2477-8990.

From the typological analysis of adobe, rammed earth, and bahareque constructions of 50 properties located in the provinces of Pichincha, Cotopaxi, Tungurahua, Chimborazo, and Bolívar, the physical, mechanical, chemical-biological, and anthropic damages produced by atmospheric agents and by the soil have been analyzed, which affect raw earth buildings in the Ecuadorian Andean area and subsequently the physical characteristics, mechanical resistance, and chemical mineralogical composition. The results determined that water mainly affects 40% of the buildings due to construction defects, such as the lack of footings over foundations that facilitate dampness in the lower parts or small eaves that do not protect from rainwater, deteriorating the mud coatings, especially of the bahareque and that is accentuated by the isolated location of the buildings. In addition, the empirical earth mixture used with a maximum gravel size of 15-18mm plus sands is in the proportion of less than 30% and a little more than 70% of clays and silts in the adobe and rammed earth samples; proportions that vary in the bahareque, with almost 55% of gravel-sand and 45% of fines; with compressive strengths less than 3MPa. The wood species, reeds, and fibers used in the manufacture of roof trusses, frameworks, and masonry have been collected. The age of the rural buildings exceeds 50 years and 82% of those studied are in a state of abandonment.

Palavras-chave : earth construction; constructive pathology; Ecuadorian Andean architecture; rural heritage; Ecuador.

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